Notes of clustering approaches.

# Gaussian Mixture Models (GMMs)

## EM algorithm

Given the fully observed variable of which $i$ indicates the $i$-th variable, be the hidden or missing variables. The objective is to maximize the log likelihood of observed data:

It is hard to direct optimize due to the $\log$ cannot be merged into the inner sum.

EM define the **complete data log likelihood** as:

This also cannot be computed since is unknown.

Then EM defines the **expected complete data log likelihood** as:

where $t$ is the current iteratio number, $Q$ is the **auxiliary function**. The expectation is take w.r.t the old parameters $\theta^{t-1}$ and the observed data $\mathcal{D}$.

In the **E-step**, compute the **expected sufficient statistics** (ESS)

In the **M-step**, the Q function is optimized w.r.t $\theta$:

To perform MAP estimation, the M step is modified as:

- EM algorithm monotonically increase the log likelihood of the observed data (plus the log prior when doing MAP)

## EM for GMMs

Let $K$ be the # of mixture components.

### Auxiliary function

the expected complete data log likelihood is:

where is the responsibility that cluster $k$ takes for data point $i$, which is computed at E-step.

### E step

### M step

In the M step, EM optimizes $Q$ w.r.t $\pi$ and :

where is the weighted number of points assigned to cluster $k$.

The log likelihood:

Thus,

After computing such new estimates, set for $k=1:K$ and go to the next $E$ step.

- The mean of cluster $k$ is just the weighted average of all poitns assigned to cluster $k$.
- The covariance is proportional to the weighted empirical scatter matrix.

1 | class GMM(Clustering): |

Multiplying multiple small probabilities can cause the arithmetic underflow, i.e.

To circumvent this, a common trick called `log sum exponential trick`

:

## K-means

K-means algorithm is a variant of EM algorithm for GMM, which can be seen as a GMM with such assumptions: and are fixed, only the cluster centers will be estimated.

In the E step,

where , which is also called **hard EM** since K-means makes the hard assignment of the points to clusters.

### E step

Since the equal spherical convariance matrix is assumed, the most probable cluster for can be computed using the Euclidian distance between $N$ data points and $K$ cluster centroids:

This is equivalence to minimizing the **pairwise squared deviations of points in the same cluster**.

### M step

Given the hard cluster assignments, the M step update the cluster centroid by computing the mean of all points assigned to it:

1 | import tensorflow as tf |

# Deep Embedded Clustering (DEC)

Given a set of $n$ points into $k$ clusters, each represented by a centroid , $j=1, \cdots, k$.

Firstly apply linear transformation , where $\theta$ are learnable parameters, $Z$ is the latent feature space.

Deep Embedded Clustering (DEC)^{[1]} has two steps:

- parametrize initialization with a deep autoencoder
- clustering, by computing an auxiliary target distribution and minimize KL divergence.

## DEC Clustering

Given initial cluster centroids , DEC firstly computes the soft assignment between the embedded points and the cluster centroids; afterwards, update the deep mapping with Stochastic Gradient Descent and refine the cluster centroids using an auxiliary target distribution. This process is repeated until convergence.

### Soft assignment

DEC applies Student’s $t$-distribution as a kernel to measure the similarity between embedded point and centroid :

where corresponds to after embedding, $\alpha$ (set to 1) are the degrees of freedom of the Student’s $t$-distribution and can be interpreted as the probability of assigning sample $i$ to cluster $j$ (i.e., soft assignment).

### KL divergence

DEC iteratively refines the clusters by learning from their high confidence assignments with the auxiliary target distribution. KL divergence is computed beween the soft assignments and the auxiliary distribution :

The choice of target distribution $P$ is critical.

where are soft cluster frequencies.

1 | """ |

# References

- 1.Xie, J., Girshick, R.B., & Farhadi, A. (2015). Unsupervised Deep Embedding for Clustering Analysis. ICML. ↩
- 2.Kmeans clustering ↩